Benvenuto nella sezione online di

La Pediatria di Netter, 2ª ed.

Letture Consigliate

Sezione XIII

Malattie Infettive

Julianne E. Burns︎

Laura B. Goldstein e Allison M. Blatz

  • American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediatric Clinical Practice Guidelines & Policies. 21st Ed. Itasca, IL: AAP; 2021.
  • Byington C.L, Enriquez F.R, Hoff C, et al. Serious bacterial infections in febrile infants 1 to 90 days old with and without viral infections. Pediatrics . 2004;113(6):1662–1666.
  • Cioffredi L, Jhaveri R. Evaluation and management of febrile children: a review. JAMA Pediatr . 2016;170(8):794–800.
  • Edmond K.M, Kortsalioudaki C, Scott S, et al. Group B streptococcal disease in infants aged younger than 3 months: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet . 2012;379(9815):547–556.
  • Huppler A.R, Eickhoff J.C, Wald E.R. Performance of low-risk criteria in the evaluation of young infants with fever: review of the literature. Pediatrics . 2010;125:228–233.
  • Palladino L, Woll C, Aronson P.L. Evaluation and management of the febrile young infant in the emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Med Pract . 2019;16(7):1–24.
  • Pantell RH, Roberts KB, Adams WG, et al. Evaluation and management of well-appearing febrile infants 8 to 60 days old. Pediatrics. 2021;148(2):e2021052228.
  • Pinninti S.G, Kimberlin D.W. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections. Semin Perinatol . 2018;42(3):168–175.
  • Thomson J, et al. Concomitant bacterial meningitis in infants with urinary tract infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J . 2017;36:908–910.

Brittany J. Van Remortel e Laura B. Goldstein

  • Antoon J.W, Potisek T, Lohr J.A. Pediatric fever of unknown origin. Pediatr Rev . 2015;36:380–391.
  • Chow A, Robinson J.L. Fever of unknown origin in children: a systematic review. World J Pediatr . 2011;7:5–10.
  • Chusid M.J. Fever of unknown origin in childhood. Pediatr Clin North Am . 2017;64:205–230.
  • Marshall G.S. Prolonged and recurrent fevers in children. J Infect . 2014;68(suppl 1):S83–S93.
  • Rigante D, Esposito S. A roadmap for fever of unknown origin in children. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol . 2013;26:315–326.

Laurel Gabler e Katherine M. Laycock

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Travelers’ Health. Available at
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, . CDC Yellow Book 2020: Health Information for International Travel. New York: Oxford University Press; 2017 Available at.
  • Feder Jr. H.M, Mansilla-Rivera K. Fever in returning travelers: a case-based approach. Am Fam Physician . 2013;88(8):524–530.
  • Fox T.G, Manaloor J.J, Christenson J.C. Travel-related infections in children. Pediatr Clin North Am . 2013;60(2):507–527.
  • Hill D.R, Ericsson C.D, Pearson R.D, et al. The practice of travel medicine: guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis . 2006;43:1499–1539.
  • Thwaites G.E, Day N.P. Approach to fever in the returning traveler. N Engl J Med . 2017;376(6):548–560.

Anna Costello e Sanjeev K. Swami


  • Biggs H.M, Behravesh C.B, Bradley K.K, et al. Diagnosis and management of tickborne rickettsial diseases. MMWR Recomm Rep . 2016;65.
  • Read J.S. Tick borne diseases in children in the United States. Pediatr Rev . 2019;40(8):381–397. doi: 10.1542/pir.2018-0304.


  • Krause P.J, Telford S.R, Pollack R.J, et al. Babesiosis: an underdiagnosed disease of children. Pediatrics . 1992;89(6):1045–1048.

Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis

  • Ismail N, Bloch K.C, McBride J.W. Human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis. Clin Lab Med . 2010;30(1):261–292. doi: 10.1016/j.cll.2009.10.004.

Lyme Disease

  • Kimberlin D.W, Brady M.T, Jackson M.A, Long S.S, eds. Red Book: 2018 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases . American Academy of Pediatrics; 2018:515–523.
  • Shapiro ED. Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme Disease). Pediatr Rev . 2014;35(12):500–509

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

  • Razzaq S, Schutze G.E. Rocky mountain spotted fever. Pediatr Rev . 2005;26(4):125–130. doi: 10.1542/pir.26-4-125.

Elizabeth D. Lowenthal e Hannah R. Ford

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, . Revised guidelines for HIV counseling, testing, and referral and revised recommendations for HIV screening of pregnant women. MMWR Morbid Mortal Wkly Rep . 2006;55(RR14):1–17 Available at.
  • HHS Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of Children Living with HIV, . Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection. 2020:1–411 Available at.
  • HHS Panel on Opportunistic Infections in, . HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children. Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections among HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children. 2019:1–409 Available at.
  • HIV Paediatric Prognostic Markers Collaborative Study and the CASCADE Collaboration, , Dunn D, Woodburn P, et al. Current CD4 cell count and the short-term risk of AIDS and death before the availability of effective antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children and adults. J Infect Dis . 2008;197(3):398–404.
  • Panel on Treatment of Pregnant Women with HIV Infection and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission, . Recommendations for the Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant Women with HIV Infection and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV Transmission in the United States. 2020:1–383 Available at.
  • World Health Organization, . Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in infants and children: Recommendations for a public health approach. 2010 Available at.

Hannah K. Mitchell e Torsten A. Joerger

  • Cruz A.T, Starke J.R. Managing tuberculosis infection in children in the USA: an update. Future Microbiol . 2016;11:669–684.
  • Lewinsohn D, et al. Official American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Practice Guidelines: Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Adults and Children. Clin Infect Dis . 2017;64(2):111–115.
  • Lamb G.S, Starke J.R. Tuberculosis in infants and children. Microbiol Spectr . 2017;5(2):10.
  • Feigin R.D, Cherry J.D, eds. Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases . 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2013.
  • Tuberculosis. In: Red Book Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases . 2018.

Bryn Carroll e Yasaman Fatemi

All Viruses

  • Kimberlin D.W, Brady M.T, Jackson M.A, Long S.S, eds. Red Book: 2018 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases . Itasca, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2018.


  • Moss W.J. Measles. Lancet . 2017;390:2490–2502.
  • Strebel P.M, Orenstein W.A. Measles. N Eng J Med . 2019;381(4):349–357.

Epstein-Barr Virus

  • Jenson H.B. Epstein-Barr virus. Pediatr Rev . 2011;32(9):375–383.

Human Herpesvirus 6

  • Eliassen E, Hemond C.C, Santoro J.D. HHV-6-associated neurologic disease in children: epidemiologic, clinical, diagnostic, and treatment considerations. Pediatr Neurol . 2020;105:10–20.
    Nonpolio Enterovirus
  • Holm-Hansen C.C, Midgely S.E, Fischer T.K. Global emergence of enterovirus D68: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis . 2016;16:e64–e75.
  • Noor A, Krilov L.R. Enterovirus infections. Pediatr Rev . 2016;37(12):505–515.
  • Rudolph H, Schroten H, Tenenbaum T. Enterovirus infections of the central nervous system in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J . 2016;35(5):567–569.

William R. Otto e Torsten A. Joerger

  • Fisher B.T, Robinson P.D, Lehrnbecher T, et al. Risk factors for invasive fungal disease in pediatric cancer and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a systematic review. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc . 2018;7(3):191–198.
  • King J, Pana Z.D, Lehrnbecher T, Steinbach W.J, Warris A. Recognition and clinical presentation of invasive fungal disease in neonates and children. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc . 2017;6(suppl_1):S12–S21.
  • Pana Z.D, Roilides E, Warris A, Groll A.H, Zaoutis T. Epidemiology of invasive fungal disease in children. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc . 2017;6(suppl 1):S3–S11.
  • Pappas P.G, Kauffman C.A, Andes D.R, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis . 2016;62(4):e1–e50.
  • Patterson T.F, Thompson 3rd. G.R, Denning D.W, et al. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of aspergillosis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis . 2016;63(4):e1–e60.

Alexandra R. Linn e Katherine M. Laycock

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Parasites. Available at
  • Devore C.D, Schutze G.E. The American Academy of Pediatrics Council on School Health and Committee on Infectious Diseases: Head lice: Clinical report. Pediatrics . 2015;135:e1355–e1365.
  • Elston DM. “Ectoparasites (Lice and Scabies).” In Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, edited by Long SS, Prober CG, and Fischer M, 5th ed., 1294–98. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2018.
  • Fitzgerald D, Grainger R.J, Reid A. Interventions for preventing the spread of infestation in close contacts of people with scabies. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2014:CD009943.
  • Red Book: 2021 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 32nd Edition. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2021.