Benvenuto nella sezione online di

La Pediatria di Netter, 2ª ed.

Letture Consigliate

Sezione XVI


Jennifer L. McGuire︎

Jillian L. McKee, and Sudha Kilaru Kessler

  • American Academy of Pediatrics, . Clinical Practice Guideline, Subcommittee on Febrile Seizures. Febrile seizures: guideline for the neurodiagnostic evaluation of the child with a simple febrile seizure. Pediatrics . 2011;127(2):389–394.
  • Fisher R.S, Acevedo C, Arzimanoglou A. A practical clinical definition of epilepsy. Epilepsia . 2014;55(4):475–482.
  • Fisher R.S, Cross J.H, French J.A. Operational classification of seizure types by the International League Against Epilepsy: position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia . 2017;58:522–530.
  • Hirtz D, Berg A, Bettis D, et al. Practice parameter: treatment of the child with a first unprovoked seizure: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society. Neurology . 2003;60(2):166–175.

Christina Lynch Szperka, Marissa Anto, and Donna J. Stephenson

  • International Classification of Headache Disorders . 3rd ed. 2019 Available at
  • Greene K, Irwin S.L, Gelfand A.A. Pediatric migraine: an update. Neurol Clin . 2019;37(4):815–833.
  • Hershey A.D, Powers S.W, Coffey C.S, et al. Childhood and Adolescent Migraine Prevention (CHAMP) study: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, comparative effectiveness study of amitriptyline, topiramate, and placebo in the prevention of childhood and adolescent migraine. Headache . 2013;53(5):799–816.
  • Oskoui M, Pringsheim T, Billinghurst L, et al. Practice guideline update summary: pharmacologic treatment for pediatric migraine prevention: Report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Headache Society. Neurology . 2019;93(11):500–509.
  • Oskoui M, Pringsheim T, Holler-Managan Y, et al. Practice guideline update summary: acute treatment of migraine in children and adolescents: report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Headache Society [published correction appears in Neurology. 2020;94(1):50]. Neurology . 2019;93(11):487–499.
  • Szperka C. Headache in children and adolescents. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2021;27(3):703–731.
  • Strauss L.D, Cavanaugh B.A, Yun E.S, Evans R.W. Incidental findings and normal anatomical variants on brain MRI in children for primary headaches. Headache . 2017;57(10):1601–1609.
  • Sullivan A, Cousins S, Ridsdale L. Psychological interventions for migraine: a systematic review. J Neurol . 2016;263(12):2369–2377.
  • Turner S.B, Rende E.K, Pezzuto T, et al. Pediatric Migraine Action Plan (PedMAP). Headache . 2019;59(10):1871–1873.

Maya R. Silver, and Lauren A. Beslow

  • Amlie-Lefond C, Wainwright M.S. Organizing for acute arterial ischemic stroke in children. Stroke . 2019;50(12):3662–3668.
  • Bernard T.J, Manco-Johnson M.J, Lo W, et al. Towards a consensus-based classification of childhood arterial ischemic stroke. Stroke . 2012;43(2):371–377.
  • Boulouis G, Blauwblomme T, Hak J.F, et al. Nontraumatic pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke . 2019;50(12):3654–3661.
  • Cellucci T, Benseler S.M. Central nervous system vasculitis in children. Curr Opin Rheumatol . 2010;22(5):590–597.
  • Debaun M.R, Jordan L.C, King A.A, et al. American Society of Hematology 2020 guidelines for sickle cell disease: prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cerebrovascular disease in children and adults. Blood Adv . 2020;4(8):1554–1588.
  • Dlamini N, Muthusami P, Amlie-Lefond C. Childhood moyamoya: looking back to the future. Pediatr Neurol . 2019;91:11–19.
  • Dunbar M, Kirton A. Perinatal stroke. Semin Pediatr Neurol . 2019;32:100767.
  • Fearn N.D, Mackay M.T. Focal cerebral arteriopathy and childhood stroke. Curr Opin Neurol . 2020;33(1):37–46.
  • Ferriero D.M, Fullerton H.J, Bernard T.J, et al. Management of stroke in neonates and children: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke . 2019;50(3):e51–e96.
  • Greenham M, Gordon A, Anderson V, et al. Outcome in childhood stroke. Stroke . 2016;47(4):1159–1164.
  • Ichord R. Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. Front Pediatr . 2017;5:163.
  • Lee S, Rivkin M.J, Kirton A, et al. Moyamoya disease in children: results from the International Pediatric Stroke Study. J Child Neurol . 2017;32(11):924–929.
  • Lehman L.L, Khoury J.C, Taylor J.M, et al. Pediatric stroke rates over 17 years: report from a population-based study. J Child Neurol . 2018;33(7):463–467.
  • Mackay M.T, Steinlin M. Recent developments and new frontiers in childhood arterial ischemic stroke. Int J Stroke . 2019;14(1):32–43.
  • Mackay M.T, Wiznitzer M, Benedict S.L, et al. Arterial ischemic stroke risk factors: the International Pediatric Stroke Study. Ann Neurol . 2011;69(1):130–140.
  • Mackay M.T, Yock-Corrales A, Churilov L, et al. Differentiating childhood stroke from mimics in the emergency department. Stroke . 2016;47(10):2476–2481.
  • Mirsky D.M, Beslow L.A, Amlie-Lefond C, et al. Pathways for neuroimaging of childhood stroke. Pediatr Neurol . 2017;69:11–23.
  • Nash M, Rafay M.F. Craniocervical arterial dissection in children: pathophysiology and management. Pediatr Neurol . 2019;95:9–18.
  • Rivkin M.J, Deveber G, Ichord R.N, et al. Thrombolysis in pediatric stroke study. Stroke . 2015;46(3):880–885.
  • Sporns P.B, Sträter R, Minnerup J, et al. Feasibility, safety, and outcome of endovascular recanalization in childhood stroke: the Save Child Study. JAMA Neurol . 2019;77(1):25–34.

Stephanie N. Brosius, and Katherine S. Taub

  • Blakeley J.O, Evans D.G, Ader J, et al. Consensus recommendations for current treatments and accelerating clinical trials for patients with neurofibromatosis type 2. Am J Med Genet A . 2012;158:24–41.
  • Campen C.J, Gutmann D.H. Optic pathway gliomas in neurofibromatosis type 1. J Child Neurol . 2018;33:73–81.
  • De La Torre A.J, Luat A.F, Juhász C, et al. A multidisciplinary consensus for clinical care and research needs for Sturge-Weber syndrome. Pediatr Neurol . 2018;84:11–20.
  • de Vries P.J, Whittemore V.H, Leclezio L, et al. Tuberous sclerosis associated neuropsychiatric disorders (TAND) and TAND checklist. Pediatr Neurol . 2015;5:25–35.
  • Gross A.M, Wolters P.L, Dombi E, et al. Selumetinib in children with inoperable plexiform neurofibromas. N Engl J Med . 2020;382:1430–1442.
  • Krueger D, Northrup H. Tuberous sclerosis complex surveillance and management: recommendations of the 2012 International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Conference. Pediatr Neurol . 2013;49:255–265.
  • Miller D.T, Freedenberg D, Schorry E, et al. Health supervision for children with neurofibromatosis type 1. Pediatrics . 2019;143:e660–e676.
  • Northrup H, Krueger D.A. Tuberous sclerosis complex diagnostic criteria update: recommendations of the 2012 International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Conference. Pediatr Neurol . 2013;49:243–254.
  • Rednam S.P, Erez A, Druker H, et al. Von Hippel-Linday and hereditary pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes: clinical features, genetics, and surveillance recommendations in childhood. Clin Cancer Res . 2017;23:e68–e75.
  • Ruggieri M, Practico A.D, Serra A, et al. Childhood neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and related disorders: from bench to bedside and biologically targeted therapies. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital . 2016;36:345–367.
  • Shirley M.D, Tang H, Gallione C, et al. Sturge-Weber syndrome and port-wine stains caused by somatic mutations in GNAQ. N Engl J Med . 2013;368:1971–1979.
  • Teng J.M, Cowen E.W, Wataya-Kaneda M, et al. Dermatologic and dental aspects of the International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus statements. JAMA Dermatol . 2014;150:1095–1101.

Jaclyn Tencer, and Andres Deik

  • Fahn S, Jankovic J, Hallett M. Principles and Practice of Movement Disorders . Elsevier Health Sciences; 2011 ISBN: 9781437737707, 1437737706.
  • Pulst S.M. Genetics of Movement Disorders . Elsevier Science; 2002 ISBN: 0125666527, 9780125666527.
  • Roger M, Kurlan R.M, Greene P.E, Biglan K.M. Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders . Oxford University Press; 2015 ISBN: 9780199925650, 0199925658.
  • Singer H.S, Mink J, Gilbert D.L, Jankovic J. Movement Disorders in Childhood . Elsevier Science; 2015 ISBN: 9780124115804, 0124115802.

Laura M. McGarry, and Marissa DiGiovine

  • Dalmau J, Tuzun E, Wu H.Y, et al. Paraneoplastic anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis associated with ovarian teratoma. Ann Neurol . 2007;61(1):25–36.
  • Dean N.P, Carpenter J.L, Campos J.M, DeBiasi R.L. A systematic approach to the differential diagnosis of encephalitis in children. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc . 2014;3(2):175–197.
  • Pillai S.C, Hacohen Y, Tantsis E, et al. Infectious and autoantibody-associated encephalitis: clinical features and long term outcome. Pediatrics . 2015;135(4):e974–e984.
  • Posner J.B, Plum F, Saper C.B, Schiff N. Plum and Posner’s Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma . New York: Oxford University Press; 2007.

Whitney Fitts, and Amy T. Waldman

  • Banwell B, Bar-Or A, Giovannoni G, Dale R.C, Tardieu M. Therapies for multiple sclerosis: considerations in the pediatric patient. Nat Rev Neurol . 2011;7(2):109–122.
  • Chitnis T, Arnold D.L, Banwell B, et al. PARADIGMS Study Group. Trial of Fingolimod versus Interferon Beta-1a in Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis. N Engl J Med . 2018;379(11):1017–1027.
  • Cortese M.M, Kambhampati A.K, Schuster J.E, et al. A ten-year retrospective evaluation of acute flaccid myelitis at 5 pediatric centers in the United States, 2005–2014. PLoS One . 2020;15(2) :e0228671.
  • Krupp L.B, Tardieu M, Amato M.P, et al. International pediatric multiple sclerosis study group criteria for pediatric multiple sclerosis and immune-mediated central nervous system demyelinating disorders: revisions to the 2007 definitions. Mult Scler . 2013;19(10):1261–1267.
  • Pohl D, Gulay A, Van Haren K, et al. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: updates on an inflammatory CNS syndrome. Neurology . 2016;87(suppl 2):S38–S45.
  • Thompson A.J, Banwell B.L, Barkhof F, et al. Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: 2017 revisions of the McDonald criteria. Lancet Neurol . 2018;17(2):162–173.
  • Waters P, Fadda G, Woodhall M, et al. Serial anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody analyses and outcomes in children with demyelinating syndromes. JAMA Neurol . 2020;77(1):82–93.
  • Wingerchuk D.M, Banwell B, Bennett J.L, et al. International Panel for NMO Diagnosis. International consensus diagnostic criteria for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Neurology . 2015;85(2):177–189.

Alexis R. Karlin, and Sona Narula

  • Caruso M.C, Daugherty M.C, Moody S.M, Falcone R.A, Bierbrauer K.S, Geis G.L. Lessons learned from administration of high-dose methylprednisolone sodium succinate for acute pediatric spinal cord injuries. J Neurosurg Pediatr . 2017;20(6):567–574.
  • Kelly T, Mathews V, Khalil S, Palasis S. Magnetic resonance imaging patterns in nontraumatic pediatric spinal cord myelopathy. Neurographics . 2019;9(3):185–200.
  • Palasis S, Hayes L.L. Acquired pathology of the pediatric spine and spinal cord. Pediatr Radiol . 2015;45(suppl 3):S420–S432.
  • Wang C, Greenberg B. Clinical approach to pediatric transverse myelitis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and acute flaccid myelitis. Children (Basel). 2019;6(5) :70.

Giulia S. Porcari, Jennifer L. McGuire, and Sabrina W. Yum

  • Birnkrant D.J, Bushby K, Bann C.M, et al. Diagnosis and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, part 1: diagnosis, and neuromuscular, rehabilitation, endocrine, and gastrointestinal and nutritional management. Lancet Neurol . 2018;17(3):251–267.
  • Birnkrant D.J, Bushby K, Bann C.M, et al. Diagnosis and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, part 2: respiratory, cardiac, bone health, and orthopaedic management. Lancet Neurol . 2018;17(4):347–361.
  • Birnkrant D.J, Bushby K, Bann C.M, et al. Diagnosis and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, part 3: primary care, emergency management, psychosocial care, and transitions of care across the lifespan. Lancet Neurol . 2018;17(5):445–455.
  • Brandsema J.F, Darras B.T. Dystrophinopathies. Semin Neurol . 2015;35(4):369–384.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, AFM case definition: Available at
  • Christy A, Messacar K. Acute flaccid myelitis associated with enterovirus D68: a review. J Child Neurol . 2019;34(9):511–516.
  • Engel A.G, Shen X.M, Selcen D, Sine S.M. Congenital myasthenic syndromes: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Lancet Neurol . 2015;14(5):461.
  • Finkel R.S, Mercuri E, Meyer O.H, et al. Diagnosis and management of spinal muscular atrophy: part 2: pulmonary and acute care; medications, supplements and immunizations; other organ systems; and ethics. Neuromuscul Disord . 2018;28(3):197–207.
  • Groen E.J.N, Talbot K, Gillingwater T.H. Advances in therapy for spinal muscular atrophy: promises and challenges. Nat Rev Neurol . 2018;14(4):214–224.
  • Jungbluth H, Treves S, Zorzato F, et al. Congenital myopathies: disorders of excitation-contraction coupling and muscle contraction. Nat Rev Neurol . 2018;14(3):151–167.
  • Mercuri E, Finkel R.S, Muntoni F, et al. Diagnosis and management of spinal muscular atrophy: part 1: recommendations for diagnosis, rehabilitation, orthopedic and nutritional care. Neuromuscul Disord . 2018;28(2):103–115.
  • O’Connell K, Ramdas S, Palace J. Management of juvenile myasthenia gravis. Front Neurol . 2020;11:743.
  • Ramchandren S. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and other genetic polyneuropathies. Continuum. 2017;23(5, Peripheral nerve and motor neuron disorders):1360–1377.
  • Ryan M.M. Pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2013;25(6):689–693.
  • Rosow L.K, Strober J.B. Infant botulism: review and clinical update. Pediatr Neurol . 2015;52(5):487–492.
  • The Infant Botulism Treatment and Prevention Program: Available at

Alexis R. Karlin, and Rebecca N. Ichord

  • Abend N, Topjian A, Ichord R, et al. Clinical Pathway for Evaluation/Treatment of Status Epilepticus. 2019.
  • Filippi M, Rocca M.A. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis. White Matter Diseases: An Update for Neurologists . 1st ed. Springer International Publishing; 2020:109–125.
  • Harrar D.B, Darras B.T, Ghosh P.S. Acute neuromuscular disorders in the pediatric intensive care unit. J Child Neurol . 2020;35(1):17–24.
  • Smith D.M, McGinnis E.L, Walleigh D.J, Abend N.S. Management of status epilepticus in children. J Clin Med . 2016;5(4) :47.
  • Tasker R.C. Elevated Intracranial Pressure (ICP) in Children: Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis . UpToDate [Internet]; 2020.
  • Vasquez A, Gaínza-Lein M, Sánchez Fernández I, et al. Pediatric Status Epilepticus Research Group (pSERG). Hospital emergency treatment of convulsive status epilepticus: comparison of pathways from ten pediatric research centers. Pediatr Neurol . 2018;86:33–41.

Allison M. Blatz, and Sanjeev Swami

  • American Academy of Pediatrics, . Lyme disease. In: Kimberlin D.W, Brady M.T, Jackson M.A, Long S.S, eds. Red Book: 2018-2021 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases . American Academy of Pediatrics; 2018:515–523.
  • Aulakh R, Chopra S. Pediatric tubercular meningitis: a review. J Pediatr Neurosci . 2018;13(4):373–382.
  • Hasbun R, Tunkel AR. Approach to the patient with central nervous system infection. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 9th ed.
  • Houston R, Gagliardo C, Vassallo S, et al. Spinal epidural abscess in children: case report and review of the literature. World Neurosurg . 2019;126:453–460.
  • Kadambari S, Harvala H, Simmonds P, Pollard A.J, Sadarangani M. Strategies to improve detection and management of human parechovirus infection in young infants. Lancet Infect Dis . 2019;19(2):e51–e58.
  • Kidd S., Lopez A., Nix W.A., et al.. Vital signs: clinical characteristics of patients with confirmed acute flaccid myelitis, United States, 2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(31):1031–1038.
  • Otto W.R, Paden W.Z, Connors M, et al. Suppurative intracranial complications of pediatric sinusitis: a single-center experience. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc . 2021;10(3):309–316.
  • Petel D, Barton M, Renaud C, et al. Enteroviral and herpes simplex virus central nervous system infections in infants 90 days old: a Paediatric Investigators’ Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC )study. BMC Pediatr . 2020;20(1):252.
  • Sivaswamy L, Ang J. Intracranial complications of sinusitis. J Pediatr . 2018;195:306.
  • Swanson D. Meningitis. Pediatr Rev . 2015;36(12):514–524 quiz 525-526.
  • Wright W.F, Pinto C.N, Palisoc K, Baghli S. Viral (aseptic) meningitis: a review. J Neurol Sci . 2019;398:176–183.